The quest to understand intelligence
Brain research offers new insights into human intelligence, and how it might be improved.
McGovern investigators study intelligence to answer a practical question for both educators and computer scientists. Can intelligence be improved?
A nine-year-old girl, a contestant on a game show, is standing on stage. On a screen in front of her, there appears a twelve-digit number followed by a six-digit number. Her challenge is to divide the two numbers as fast as possible.
The timer begins. She is racing against three other contestants, two from China and one, like her, from Japan. Whoever answers first wins, but only if the answer is correct.
The show, called “The Brain,” is wildly popular in China, and attracts players who display their memory and concentration skills much the way American athletes demonstrate their physical skills in shows like “American Ninja Warrior.” After a few seconds, the girl slams the timer and gives the correct answer, faster than most people could have entered the numbers on a calculator.
The camera pans to a team of expert judges, including McGovern Director Robert Desimone, who had arrived in Nanjing just a few hours earlier. Desimone shakes his head in disbelief. The task appears to make extraordinary demands on working memory and rapid processing, but the girl explains that she solves it by visualizing an abacus in her mind—something she has practiced intensively.
The show raises an age-old question: What is intelligence, exactly?
The study of intelligence has a long and sometimes contentious history, but recently, neuroscientists have begun to dissect intelligence to understand the neural roots of the distinct cognitive skills that contribute to it. One key question is whether these skills can be improved individually with training and, if so, whether those improvements translate into overall intelligence gains. This research has practical implications for multiple domains, from brain science to education to artificial intelligence.
“The problem of intelligence is one of the great problems in science,” says Tomaso Poggio, a McGovern investigator and an expert on machine learning. “If we make progress in understanding intelligence, and if that helps us make progress in making ourselves smarter or in making machines that help us think better, we can solve all other problems more easily.”
Brain training 101
Many studies have reported positive results from brain training, and there is now a thriving industry devoted to selling tools and games such as Lumosity and BrainHQ. Yet the science behind brain training to improve intelligence remains controversial.
A case in point is the “n-back” working memory task, in which subjects are presented with a rapid sequence of letters or visual patterns, and must report whether the current item matches the last, last-but-one, last-but-two, and so on. The field of brain training received a boost in 2008 when a widely discussed study claimed that a few weeks of training on a challenging version of this task could boost fluid intelligence, the ability to solve novel problems. The report generated excitement and optimism when it first appeared, but several subsequent attempts to reproduce the findings have been unsuccessful.
Among those unable to confirm the result was McGovern Investigator John Gabrieli, who recruited 60 young adults and trained them forty minutes a day for four weeks on an n-back task similar to that of the original study.
Six months later, Gabrieli re-evaluated the participants. “They got amazingly better at the difficult task they practiced. We have great imaging data showing changes in brain activation as they performed the task from before to after,” says Gabrieli. “And yet, that didn’t help them do better on any other cognitive abilities we could measure, and we measured a lot of things.”
The results don’t completely rule out the value of n-back training, says Gabrieli. It may be more effective in children, or in populations with a lower average intelligence than the individuals (mostly college students) who were recruited for Gabrieli’s study. The prospect that training might help disadvantaged individuals holds strong appeal. “If you could raise the cognitive abilities of a child with autism, or a child who is struggling in school, the data tells us that their life would be a step better,” says Gabrieli. “It’s something you would wish for people, especially for those where something is holding them back from the expression of their other abilities.”
Music for the brain
The concept of early intervention is now being tested by Desimone, who has teamed with Chinese colleagues at the recently-established IDG/McGovern Institute at Beijing Normal University to explore the effect of music training on the cognitive abilities of young children.
The researchers recruited 100 children at a neighborhood kindergarten in Beijing, and provided them with a semester-long intervention, randomly assigning children either to music training or (as a control) to additional reading instruction. Unlike the so-called “Mozart Effect,” a scientifically unsubstantiated claim that passive listening to music increases intelligence, the new study requires active learning through daily practice. Several smaller studies have reported cognitive benefits from music training, and Desimone finds the idea plausible given that musical cognition involves several mental functions that are also implicated in intelligence. The study is nearly complete, and results are expected to emerge within a few months. “We’re also collecting data on brain activity, so if we see improvements in the kids who had music training, we’ll also be able to ask about its neural basis,” says Desimone. The results may also have immediate practical implications, since the study design reflects decisions that schools must make in determining how children spend their time. “Many schools are deciding to cut their arts and music programs to make room for more instruction in academic core subjects, so our study is relevant to real questions schools are facing.”
In another school-based study, Gabrieli’s group recently raised questions about the benefits of “teaching to the test.” In this study, postdoc Amy Finn evaluated over 1300 eighth-graders in the Boston public schools, some enrolled at traditional schools and others at charter schools that emphasize standardized test score improvements. The researchers wanted to find out whether raised test scores were accompanied by improvement of cognitive skills that are linked to intelligence. (Charter school students are selected by lottery, meaning that any results are unlikely to reflect preexisting differences between the two groups of students.) As expected, charter school students showed larger improvements in test scores (relative to their scores from 4 years earlier). But when Finn and her colleagues measured key aspects of intelligence, such as working memory, processing speed, and reasoning, they found no difference between the students who enrolled in charter schools and those who did not. “You can look at these skills as the building blocks of cognition. They are useful for reasoning in a novel situation, an ability that is really important for learning,” says Finn. “It’s surprising that school practices that increase achievement don’t also increase these building blocks.”
Gabrieli remains optimistic that it will eventually be possible to design scientifically based interventions that can raise children’s abilities. Allyson Mackey, a postdoc in his lab, is studying the use of games to exercise the cognitive skills in a classroom setting. As a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley, Mackey had studied the effects of games such as “Chocolate Fix,” in which players match shapes and flavors, represented by color, to positions in a grid based on hints, such as, “the upper left position is strawberry.”
These games gave children practice at thinking through and solving novel problems, and at the end of Mackey’s study, the students—from second through fourth grades—showed improved measures of skills associated with intelligence. “Our results suggest that these cognitive skills are specifically malleable, although we don’t yet know what the active ingredients were in this program,” says Mackey, who speaks of the interventions as if they were drugs, with dosages, efficacies and potentially synergistic combinations to be explored. Mackey is now working to identify the most promising interventions—those that boost cognitive abilities, work well in the classroom, and are engaging for kids—to try in Boston charter schools. “It’s just the beginning of a three-year process to methodically test interventions to see if they work,” she says.
Brain training…for machines
While Desimone, Gabrieli and their colleagues look for ways to raise human intelligence, Poggio, who directs the MIT-based Center for Brains, Minds and Machines, is trying to endow computers with more human-like intelligence. Computers can already match human performance on some specific tasks such as chess. Programs such as Apple’s “Siri” can mimic human speech interpretation, not perfectly but well enough to be useful. Computer vision programs are approaching human performance at rapid object recognitions, and one such system, developed by one of Poggio’s former postdocs, is now being used to assist car drivers. “The last decade has been pretty magical for intelligent computer systems,” says Poggio.
Like children, these intelligent systems learn from past experience. But compared to humans or other animals, machines tend to be very slow learners. For example, the visual system for automobiles was trained by presenting it with millions of images—traffic light, pedestrian, and so on—that had already been labeled by humans. “You would never present so many examples to a child,” says Poggio. “One of our big challenges is to understand how to make algorithms in computers learn with many fewer examples, to make them learn more like children do.”
To accomplish this and other goals of machine intelligence, Poggio suspects that the work being done by Desimone, Gabrieli and others to understand the neural basis of intelligence will be critical. But he is not expecting any single breakthrough that will make everything fall into place. “A century ago,” he says, “scientists pondered the problem of life, as if ‘life’—what we now call biology—were just one problem. The science of intelligence is like biology. It’s a lot of problems, and a lot of breakthroughs will have to come before a machine appears that is as intelligent as we are.”